Natural Fractures Characterization and Modeling
Complete consulting services in natural fractures characterization and modeling
Analysis of outcrop and image log data to generate fracture statistics (per orientation, type, conductivity, etc.) that will be later used to calibrate seismic data
Fracture detection using conventional logs
Analysis of the response of conventional logs (RHOB, resistivity, sonic, etc.) to the presence of natural fractures. Generation of fracture flags. Comparison with response of image logs, if available.
Rock physics in the presence of fractures
Analysis of petrophysical and elastic properties of fractured rocks. Identification of ductile and "brittle" facies using lithology and fracture information in vertical and horizontal wells.
Generation of fracture related attributes
Estimation of strain and curvature from 2D surfaces and 3D poststack seismic volumes. Surfaces may come from interpreted horizons or densely sampled formation tops. Estimation of orientation, intensity and Fisher coefficient (circular variance) from structural attributes
QC and calibration of fracture related attributes
Quality control of fracture related attributes from poststack and prestack data, including azimuthal AVO and azimuthal velocity analysis. Calibration with independent fracture information from outcrop, image logs, local stress, microseismic and other petrophysical and production data.
Prepare input for fracture modeling
Create fracture intensity volumes calibrated with well data for bed-bound fractures following mechanical stratigraphy. Generate 3D volumes of intensity for through-going fractures, local orientations and Fisher coefficient.
Continuous Fracture Modeling (CFM)
Use intensity, orientation and Fisher coefficient estimated from seismic data for different fracture families. Generate "combined" fracture intensity volumes (P32) for all fracture types for different mixing parameters. Output permeability models ready for flow simulation. No need to build DFNs for further geomechanical analyses or upscale to continuous fracture permeability.
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) modeling
Use intensity, orientation and Fisher coefficient for different fracture types along with additional geologic information (aperture, aspect ratio, layer thickness) to generate discrete fractures that honor fracture counts from FMI data.
Geomechanics, fracture quality and calibration with production data
Estimate fracture quality (conductive or closed) based on critically stressed analyses and local orientations of maximum horizontal stress. Take a look at our calculator to perform critically stress analysis or fault slip potential in 2D. Upscale fracture permeability for flow simulation directly on the continuous domain (CMF) without need of using discrete fracture models. Check our effective permeability calculator to see how we can transform geometrical fracture information and intensity along with stress information to estimate the dominant orientation of flow (Kmax and Kmin) in a cell. Calibrate permeabilities with production data.
Calibrate your own data using our online calculators
Proper calibration of seismic derived fracture information for flow properties starts with an estimation of the stress state. Try our stress polygon calculator for the estimation of stress state. Then, input your own production and fracture data into our effective permeability calculator to calibrate your information in one cell of your grid.